## Moon Model of the Atomic Nucleus

Let's enter the world of the very small and see what we can learn about the underlying structure of matter...

The size dimensions we are looking at here are:

This is an update on Professor Moon's model of the atomic nucleus based on electrodynamics of Ampere, Gauss, and Weber as well as considerations of rotational axis dynamics based on minimizing angular momentum...

It is interesting personally to note that Professor Moon was building his cyclotron at the University of Chicago in 1935-6 at a time when my family's physician after whom I am named was involved in similar work with energy medicine with Steinmetz at GE...

In the Moon model, protons in the atomic nuclei of atoms of increasing atomic number progressively occupy the vertices of nested Platonic solids. The neutrons occupy the centers of the faces and edges. Stability is achieved when nearest neighboring protons have opposite magnetic polarity. A stable configuration with 4 protons at the 4 vertices is not achievable for the tetrahedron, which is the most basic Platonic solid at the center of the concentric configuration, so it becomes occupied by an alpha particle, which is essentially a Helium nucleus made up of 2 protons and 2 neutrons...

Protons have an affinity for pairing as demonstrated by the relative abundance of minerals with an even atomic number. This phenomenon is known as the Oddo-Harkins Rule. The updated Moon model of the nucleus explains this by modeling Weber pairs of protons interacting between opposite pairs of vertices in each Platonic solid. The protons oscillate through a nodal point of zero velocity at the vertices, and pass through each other at superluminal relative speed (square root of 2 times c) at the center point singularity of the diagonal axis connecting the two opposing vertices. In Weber's original relativistic Fundamental Electrical Law, it is the force between such charges that varies at relativistic velocities rather than the mass varying...

It is at this singularity with its increased forces that an electron may condense with a proton to form the coherence zone we call a neutron. This is consistent with the conception of the neutron originated by Harkins that was adopted by Moon.

In our Clinical Theory, we note that multiple Weber pairs of protons can unify into a coherence zone, functioning as Cooper pairs in forming a condensate state of matter. We propose that this occurs for certain nuclear shells in the formation of ORMUS from the transition metals. Under some conditions, all the shells can enter the condensate state, and the minerals no longer show signs of material presence. Just as with the production of EZ water (liquid crystalline H3O2- sheets), this is an endothermic process. The energy and the matter in this state are "Dark" with respect to instrumentation and the senses, and we propose these as models for Dark Energy and Dark Matter that have been demonstrated in the laboratory.

Liebnitz showed that below a certain minimum distance, the Coulomb force of repulsion between like charges reverses and becomes an attractive force. Using modern values, this distance calculates to be about 3 x 10-16 cm. The corresponding distance for the orbital of a pair of electrons around such a Weber pair of protons is 918 times that distance due to the difference in mass.

Symmetry patterns in relation to spin of the nuclear shells give the Moon model the potential to explain the observed patterns of stable isotopes of the various minerals. It turns out that in the completion of the 5 shells from the tetrahedron to the cube to the octahedron to the icosahedron to the dodecahedron (at Palladium), there is a single unique axis of rotational symmetry, referred to in this model as the 'Axis of the Universe'. This axis passes through vertices of the dodecahedron and cube, and the unique parallel face centers of the icosahedron and octahedron.

As I have already alluded, the geometry of the first shell, the tetrahedron, does not provide a stable configuration for protons at its 4 vertices. This is because any proton in such a configuration will always have a proton of identical polarity as a nearest neighbor. This instability explains the very low relative cosmic abundance of Lithium (4), as well as its neighbors Beryllium (3) and Boron (5). For these and higher atomic number nuclei (above 2), the inner tetrahedral shell is filled with 4 neutrons.

The cube shell is filled with the formation of Oxygen (8). The cube has equivalent rotational symmetry at all 3 diagonal axes of the Weber paired protons. The symmetries produced with rotation around one of these axes are 3 and 6. This is close to the omnidirectional 3D spherical symmetry that we see for gravity. Oxygen is a strongly paramagnetic mineral. Paramagnetism is a positive magnetic susceptibility.

In Ampere's angular force formula for two currents running in parallel, the force goes to zero at an angle of 109.5 degrees. This is precisely the tetrahedral angle. It is also the angle at which Weber pairs approach each other from opposite vertices on the same face of the cube. This means there is no force interaction between these two pairs, while there is a force of attraction between each Weber pair and the three closest pairs, with the resultant force lying precisely along the diagonal path of the Weber pair.

Silicon (14) is the mineral formed with completion of the octahedral shell. Its preferred spin axis is the exception among the completed shells of this model. Instead of spinning around the 'axis of the universe' it is more stable spinning around a diagonal axis between two vertices of the octahedron. This variation may correspond to Silicon being the only mineral in this category that is diamagnetic, i.e. it has a slightly negative magnetic susceptibility, which means it is slightly repelled by both North and South magnetic poles. The other completed shell minerals are highly magnetic or paramagnetic. Both paramagnetic and magnetic attraction are disrupted by heat, which may disrupt the coherence of rotational axis orientations. In contrast, diamagnetism is not affected by heat, with the exception of Bismuth (83) which is the most diamagnetic mineral. More understanding is needed on the geometries in relation to spin that may underly the various forms and degrees of magnetism, but the Moon model appears to at least hold some potential clues (see Palladium, below).

It is interesting to notice that superconductors are diamagnetic, as they turn imposed magnetic fields into surface currents that oppose the impinging magnetic field with an opposite field called the Meissner field. The Clinical Theory of Everything proposes that the atomic nucleus is inherently a coherence zone with superconductive properties, so that diamagnetism is a foundational property that is expressed unless overcome by weak or strong magnetism (paramagnetism and magnetism respectively). It is interesting to note that the spirit mineral condensates are paramagnetic in their monoatomic or diatomic state in their free gaseous state in the atmosphere, but when they combine into the planar crystal lattices in biological systems, such as in cell membranes they become diamagnetic. This is a reflection of the development of superconductivity in the extended arrays which provide the potential space in the associated electron cloud coherence zone for current loops to flow. These currents, flowing as phonons at the speed of sound, are then capable of registering and storing information without loss over time.

Argon (18) has an anomalously high number of neutrons (22) compared to its protons (18) for a relatively small atom. Most small atoms have either an equal number of neutrons to the number of protons, or one extra proton. This can be explained by Argon filling its inner tetrahedral shell with the 4 extra neutrons observed. The following minerals Potassium and Calcium each have 20 neutrons, and Calcium has 20 protons as well. This number (20) as well as the number 50 are called 'magic numbers' in the conventional science model. Having an even number of protons, all in Weber pairs, Calcium is particularly abundant, and also exists in 6 different isotopes, which is much more than any other mineral up to its size.

The icosahedral shell is filled at Iron (26). There is then one uniquely balanced spin axis which goes through the two sets of parallel faces of the icosahedron and the contained octahedron. This axis passes through one of the 3 equivalent diagonal axes of the central cube. Iron is of course highly magnetic.

Palladium (46) is formed with the completion of the dodecahedral shell. Palladium is strongly paramagnetic, giving a peak in the curve of susceptibility of the elements, along with Oxygen and Iron, which represent the completion the cubic and icosahedral shells in the Moon model. The Clinical Theory of Everything proposes that the complete shells permit the formation of a coherence zone for that shell.

For atoms heavier than Palladium, a second dodecahedral structure is built. This is completed with Uranium (92) having 2 dodecahedra hinged together at 2 protons with one being on the unique axis of rotation. That configuration allows for 73 neutron positions at face centers and edge centers in each structure, which gives precisely the 146 neutrons found in Uranium:

6 cube faces

12 cube edges

12 octahedral edges

30 icosahedral edges

73 total

Tin (magic number 50) has 10 different naturally occurring isotopes. The nearest competitors for the number of stable isotopes have only 8. Tin's unusual stability is explained by its perfect rotational symmetry, with the 4 protons added to the dodecahedral shell added one directly at the axis of rotation, and the other 3 symmetrically above the next nearest vertices.

Another relevant issue is the variable 'mass defect' interpreted as binding energy seen in the various minerals. The alternate interpretation taken from the Gauss-Weber view is that rather than a change in mass, there is a change in the force caused by a change in the effective charge. The geometries of the Moon model explain why there is a variable degree of force interaction between the charges. The 'mass defect' per nucleon peaks at Iron, which represents a filled icosahedral shell in the Moon model. There is no other explanation for this curve and the location of its peak in the standard model. As suggested by Riemann and Weber, mass and gravitation are ultimately an electrodynamic process involving the orientation and relative motion of nuclear charges within attracting bodies.

Gadolinium (64) represents the completion of a second cube inside the second partial dodecahedron. It shows a maximum for magnetic susceptibility.

The Spirit Minerals of our Clinical Theory of Everything, also called ORMUS have high spin nuclei. They typically express 5/9 of the mass of the same transition minerals in their 'normal' metallic state of matter. Mass is masked by spin. That is how anti-gravity technologies work, typically with counter-rotational spin. It may be that counter-rotation of the Platonic shells of the nucleus is possible and results, at various quantum levels, in the varying properties of the Orbitally Rearranged Monoatomic Elements (ORMEs) as patented by David Hudson.

"All matter is frozen light." - David Bohm

The model of the electron as a Moebius photon on a half wavelength circuit (hence spin 1/2) with its positive field projected inwards and negative electric field outward based on Thomas Precession (1927). The direction of the twist determines whether spin is up or down. The radius of the electron (Compton wavelength) corresponds precisely to this photonic model at 1.93 x 10-13 m. The model further explains the source of the electron's characteristic mass (E = mc2 = h(nu)) as a result of its curvature, negative electrical field as a result of its twist, spin (1/2) as a result of its periodicity, magnetic moment and dual wave/particle behavior. The fine structure constant of 1/137 is explained by the ratio of its width to its diameter. The apparent smaller size of the electron determined in high energy particle accelerator studies is a manifestation of the higher energy of those electrons, as the wavelength is shorted by the added energy, thus reducing the diameter of the photon path by several orders of magnitude.

The model also explains the electron's antiparticle. A positron has the positive field outward, which is also equivalent to a time reversed electron.

A neutrino is a similar path without the Moebius twist, such that the field alternates rapidly in charge with a neutral net resultant (integral).

Let's look at a possible structural model of the proton as condensed light as well... Since we can see how electrons and other leptons are made of light, one possibility to explore is how protons might be made up of leptons. The energy content of a proton is 938 MeV. This is enough energy to account for 18 electron-like and positron-like leptons at their maximum energy content of 53 MeV each, organized into 3 quarks when the coherence zone is broken. When inside the intact proton, evidence points to these forming 3 concentric shells, as we see in the fractal structure of the nucleus and the electron shells. Those shells may reflect the 3 fundamental symmetry patterns: tetrahedral, octahedral and icosahedral... The difference of 16 MeV is accounted for by a binding energy of 8 MeV for each added quark. For translation of a relevant exploration, click here...

A second generation metastable lepton particle, the muon, is consistent with an internal pair of electron-like leptons, as it contains 106 MeV. It decays into a single electron plus a pair of neutrinos (which are also leptons). It is by far the most stable of all the unstable subatomic particles produced by high energy collisions that break the nuclear coherence zone, with the lone exception of the neutron. While a muon has a lifespan of about 2.2 microseconds, a lone neutron decays in about 15 minutes. The products of the neutron's decay are a proton, an electron and an antineutrino.

We can visualize each quark as being composed of 3 lepton pairs, which if the interior of the proton is a coherence zone as we suspect, could be functioning like Cooper pairs.

If we look for 18 unique resonance patterns within a spherical coherence zone as our wavespace, we see that these patterns are geometrically defined and discretely limited to the 18 total forms described by the Platonic Solids plus the Archimedean Solids.

The net +1 positive charge of a proton may be modeled as a positron at the center of the proton paired with a neutrino rather than an electron...

A neutron is modeled as a proton with another electron condensed with it into a single coherence zone. It's energy content is 940 MeV. The proton alone is 938 MeV, so the addition of an electron with 53 MeV would show a negative binding energy of 51 MeV which explains why the neutron is so unstable on its own outside the positively charged nuclear environment.

The size dimensions we are looking at here are:

- Atom 10-10 m (electron orbital shells)
- Nucleus 10-14 m
- Proton, Neutron 10-15 m
- Electron 10-18 m
- Quark 10-19 m

This is an update on Professor Moon's model of the atomic nucleus based on electrodynamics of Ampere, Gauss, and Weber as well as considerations of rotational axis dynamics based on minimizing angular momentum...

It is interesting personally to note that Professor Moon was building his cyclotron at the University of Chicago in 1935-6 at a time when my family's physician after whom I am named was involved in similar work with energy medicine with Steinmetz at GE...

In the Moon model, protons in the atomic nuclei of atoms of increasing atomic number progressively occupy the vertices of nested Platonic solids. The neutrons occupy the centers of the faces and edges. Stability is achieved when nearest neighboring protons have opposite magnetic polarity. A stable configuration with 4 protons at the 4 vertices is not achievable for the tetrahedron, which is the most basic Platonic solid at the center of the concentric configuration, so it becomes occupied by an alpha particle, which is essentially a Helium nucleus made up of 2 protons and 2 neutrons...

Protons have an affinity for pairing as demonstrated by the relative abundance of minerals with an even atomic number. This phenomenon is known as the Oddo-Harkins Rule. The updated Moon model of the nucleus explains this by modeling Weber pairs of protons interacting between opposite pairs of vertices in each Platonic solid. The protons oscillate through a nodal point of zero velocity at the vertices, and pass through each other at superluminal relative speed (square root of 2 times c) at the center point singularity of the diagonal axis connecting the two opposing vertices. In Weber's original relativistic Fundamental Electrical Law, it is the force between such charges that varies at relativistic velocities rather than the mass varying...

It is at this singularity with its increased forces that an electron may condense with a proton to form the coherence zone we call a neutron. This is consistent with the conception of the neutron originated by Harkins that was adopted by Moon.

In our Clinical Theory, we note that multiple Weber pairs of protons can unify into a coherence zone, functioning as Cooper pairs in forming a condensate state of matter. We propose that this occurs for certain nuclear shells in the formation of ORMUS from the transition metals. Under some conditions, all the shells can enter the condensate state, and the minerals no longer show signs of material presence. Just as with the production of EZ water (liquid crystalline H3O2- sheets), this is an endothermic process. The energy and the matter in this state are "Dark" with respect to instrumentation and the senses, and we propose these as models for Dark Energy and Dark Matter that have been demonstrated in the laboratory.

Liebnitz showed that below a certain minimum distance, the Coulomb force of repulsion between like charges reverses and becomes an attractive force. Using modern values, this distance calculates to be about 3 x 10-16 cm. The corresponding distance for the orbital of a pair of electrons around such a Weber pair of protons is 918 times that distance due to the difference in mass.

Symmetry patterns in relation to spin of the nuclear shells give the Moon model the potential to explain the observed patterns of stable isotopes of the various minerals. It turns out that in the completion of the 5 shells from the tetrahedron to the cube to the octahedron to the icosahedron to the dodecahedron (at Palladium), there is a single unique axis of rotational symmetry, referred to in this model as the 'Axis of the Universe'. This axis passes through vertices of the dodecahedron and cube, and the unique parallel face centers of the icosahedron and octahedron.

As I have already alluded, the geometry of the first shell, the tetrahedron, does not provide a stable configuration for protons at its 4 vertices. This is because any proton in such a configuration will always have a proton of identical polarity as a nearest neighbor. This instability explains the very low relative cosmic abundance of Lithium (4), as well as its neighbors Beryllium (3) and Boron (5). For these and higher atomic number nuclei (above 2), the inner tetrahedral shell is filled with 4 neutrons.

The cube shell is filled with the formation of Oxygen (8). The cube has equivalent rotational symmetry at all 3 diagonal axes of the Weber paired protons. The symmetries produced with rotation around one of these axes are 3 and 6. This is close to the omnidirectional 3D spherical symmetry that we see for gravity. Oxygen is a strongly paramagnetic mineral. Paramagnetism is a positive magnetic susceptibility.

In Ampere's angular force formula for two currents running in parallel, the force goes to zero at an angle of 109.5 degrees. This is precisely the tetrahedral angle. It is also the angle at which Weber pairs approach each other from opposite vertices on the same face of the cube. This means there is no force interaction between these two pairs, while there is a force of attraction between each Weber pair and the three closest pairs, with the resultant force lying precisely along the diagonal path of the Weber pair.

Silicon (14) is the mineral formed with completion of the octahedral shell. Its preferred spin axis is the exception among the completed shells of this model. Instead of spinning around the 'axis of the universe' it is more stable spinning around a diagonal axis between two vertices of the octahedron. This variation may correspond to Silicon being the only mineral in this category that is diamagnetic, i.e. it has a slightly negative magnetic susceptibility, which means it is slightly repelled by both North and South magnetic poles. The other completed shell minerals are highly magnetic or paramagnetic. Both paramagnetic and magnetic attraction are disrupted by heat, which may disrupt the coherence of rotational axis orientations. In contrast, diamagnetism is not affected by heat, with the exception of Bismuth (83) which is the most diamagnetic mineral. More understanding is needed on the geometries in relation to spin that may underly the various forms and degrees of magnetism, but the Moon model appears to at least hold some potential clues (see Palladium, below).

It is interesting to notice that superconductors are diamagnetic, as they turn imposed magnetic fields into surface currents that oppose the impinging magnetic field with an opposite field called the Meissner field. The Clinical Theory of Everything proposes that the atomic nucleus is inherently a coherence zone with superconductive properties, so that diamagnetism is a foundational property that is expressed unless overcome by weak or strong magnetism (paramagnetism and magnetism respectively). It is interesting to note that the spirit mineral condensates are paramagnetic in their monoatomic or diatomic state in their free gaseous state in the atmosphere, but when they combine into the planar crystal lattices in biological systems, such as in cell membranes they become diamagnetic. This is a reflection of the development of superconductivity in the extended arrays which provide the potential space in the associated electron cloud coherence zone for current loops to flow. These currents, flowing as phonons at the speed of sound, are then capable of registering and storing information without loss over time.

Argon (18) has an anomalously high number of neutrons (22) compared to its protons (18) for a relatively small atom. Most small atoms have either an equal number of neutrons to the number of protons, or one extra proton. This can be explained by Argon filling its inner tetrahedral shell with the 4 extra neutrons observed. The following minerals Potassium and Calcium each have 20 neutrons, and Calcium has 20 protons as well. This number (20) as well as the number 50 are called 'magic numbers' in the conventional science model. Having an even number of protons, all in Weber pairs, Calcium is particularly abundant, and also exists in 6 different isotopes, which is much more than any other mineral up to its size.

The icosahedral shell is filled at Iron (26). There is then one uniquely balanced spin axis which goes through the two sets of parallel faces of the icosahedron and the contained octahedron. This axis passes through one of the 3 equivalent diagonal axes of the central cube. Iron is of course highly magnetic.

Palladium (46) is formed with the completion of the dodecahedral shell. Palladium is strongly paramagnetic, giving a peak in the curve of susceptibility of the elements, along with Oxygen and Iron, which represent the completion the cubic and icosahedral shells in the Moon model. The Clinical Theory of Everything proposes that the complete shells permit the formation of a coherence zone for that shell.

For atoms heavier than Palladium, a second dodecahedral structure is built. This is completed with Uranium (92) having 2 dodecahedra hinged together at 2 protons with one being on the unique axis of rotation. That configuration allows for 73 neutron positions at face centers and edge centers in each structure, which gives precisely the 146 neutrons found in Uranium:

6 cube faces

12 cube edges

12 octahedral edges

30 icosahedral edges

__13__icosahedral faces73 total

Tin (magic number 50) has 10 different naturally occurring isotopes. The nearest competitors for the number of stable isotopes have only 8. Tin's unusual stability is explained by its perfect rotational symmetry, with the 4 protons added to the dodecahedral shell added one directly at the axis of rotation, and the other 3 symmetrically above the next nearest vertices.

Another relevant issue is the variable 'mass defect' interpreted as binding energy seen in the various minerals. The alternate interpretation taken from the Gauss-Weber view is that rather than a change in mass, there is a change in the force caused by a change in the effective charge. The geometries of the Moon model explain why there is a variable degree of force interaction between the charges. The 'mass defect' per nucleon peaks at Iron, which represents a filled icosahedral shell in the Moon model. There is no other explanation for this curve and the location of its peak in the standard model. As suggested by Riemann and Weber, mass and gravitation are ultimately an electrodynamic process involving the orientation and relative motion of nuclear charges within attracting bodies.

Gadolinium (64) represents the completion of a second cube inside the second partial dodecahedron. It shows a maximum for magnetic susceptibility.

The Spirit Minerals of our Clinical Theory of Everything, also called ORMUS have high spin nuclei. They typically express 5/9 of the mass of the same transition minerals in their 'normal' metallic state of matter. Mass is masked by spin. That is how anti-gravity technologies work, typically with counter-rotational spin. It may be that counter-rotation of the Platonic shells of the nucleus is possible and results, at various quantum levels, in the varying properties of the Orbitally Rearranged Monoatomic Elements (ORMEs) as patented by David Hudson.

"All matter is frozen light." - David Bohm

The model of the electron as a Moebius photon on a half wavelength circuit (hence spin 1/2) with its positive field projected inwards and negative electric field outward based on Thomas Precession (1927). The direction of the twist determines whether spin is up or down. The radius of the electron (Compton wavelength) corresponds precisely to this photonic model at 1.93 x 10-13 m. The model further explains the source of the electron's characteristic mass (E = mc2 = h(nu)) as a result of its curvature, negative electrical field as a result of its twist, spin (1/2) as a result of its periodicity, magnetic moment and dual wave/particle behavior. The fine structure constant of 1/137 is explained by the ratio of its width to its diameter. The apparent smaller size of the electron determined in high energy particle accelerator studies is a manifestation of the higher energy of those electrons, as the wavelength is shorted by the added energy, thus reducing the diameter of the photon path by several orders of magnitude.

The model also explains the electron's antiparticle. A positron has the positive field outward, which is also equivalent to a time reversed electron.

A neutrino is a similar path without the Moebius twist, such that the field alternates rapidly in charge with a neutral net resultant (integral).

Let's look at a possible structural model of the proton as condensed light as well... Since we can see how electrons and other leptons are made of light, one possibility to explore is how protons might be made up of leptons. The energy content of a proton is 938 MeV. This is enough energy to account for 18 electron-like and positron-like leptons at their maximum energy content of 53 MeV each, organized into 3 quarks when the coherence zone is broken. When inside the intact proton, evidence points to these forming 3 concentric shells, as we see in the fractal structure of the nucleus and the electron shells. Those shells may reflect the 3 fundamental symmetry patterns: tetrahedral, octahedral and icosahedral... The difference of 16 MeV is accounted for by a binding energy of 8 MeV for each added quark. For translation of a relevant exploration, click here...

A second generation metastable lepton particle, the muon, is consistent with an internal pair of electron-like leptons, as it contains 106 MeV. It decays into a single electron plus a pair of neutrinos (which are also leptons). It is by far the most stable of all the unstable subatomic particles produced by high energy collisions that break the nuclear coherence zone, with the lone exception of the neutron. While a muon has a lifespan of about 2.2 microseconds, a lone neutron decays in about 15 minutes. The products of the neutron's decay are a proton, an electron and an antineutrino.

We can visualize each quark as being composed of 3 lepton pairs, which if the interior of the proton is a coherence zone as we suspect, could be functioning like Cooper pairs.

If we look for 18 unique resonance patterns within a spherical coherence zone as our wavespace, we see that these patterns are geometrically defined and discretely limited to the 18 total forms described by the Platonic Solids plus the Archimedean Solids.

The net +1 positive charge of a proton may be modeled as a positron at the center of the proton paired with a neutrino rather than an electron...

A neutron is modeled as a proton with another electron condensed with it into a single coherence zone. It's energy content is 940 MeV. The proton alone is 938 MeV, so the addition of an electron with 53 MeV would show a negative binding energy of 51 MeV which explains why the neutron is so unstable on its own outside the positively charged nuclear environment.